Using data from the In CHIANTI Study, we hypothesized a negative relationship between SHBG and a positive relationship between sex hormones and inflammatory markers in late postmenopausal women.The study population included 556 women who participated in the Invecchiare nel CHIANTI (In CHIANTI) study, randomly selected from all female residents 65 yr and older in the CHIANTI catchment area (Tuscany, Italy).Most of those studies specifically targeted estrogens (5–10).We recently showed that higher E2 levels are associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality in late postmenopausal women independent of testosterone, supporting the timing hypothesis of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women (11, 12).CRP was measured with a particle-enhanced- immunonephelometric assay and a Dade Behring BN11 nephelometer (Dade Behring, Inc., Deerfield, IL). Intraassay and interassay CVs ranged from 2.3 to 4.4% and from 2.1 to 5.7%, respectively.Smoking history was determined from self-report and dichotomized in the analysis as “current smoking” “ever smoked” or “never smoked.” Education was assessed as years of schooling.
This hormonal pattern, a hallmark of polycystic ovarian syndrome, supports the view that androgen excess may affect cardiovascular risk profile in women (13).
Blood samples were obtained from participants after a 12-h fast and after a 15-min rest.
Aliquots of serum were stored at −80 C and were not thawed until analyzed.
Aging is characterized by a low-grade inflammatory status.
Serum levels of inflammatory markers increase with age in both sexes, and the level of inflammatory markers is a strong and independent risk factor for frailty, disability, and cardiovascular events (1–3).
BMI was calculated as weight (in kilograms) divided by the square of height (in meters).