Formerly it was the rule that a book was examined by one of the Roman Congregations only after complaint had been made to Rome.
With regard to the Congregation of the Index, however, Pius X, when reorganizing the Roman Curia by the Constitution "Sapienti consilio" (29 June, 1908), decreed as follows: Henceforth it will be the task of this Sacred Congregation not only to examine carefully the books denounced to it, to prohibit them ifnecessary, and to grant permission for reading forbidden books, but also to supervise, ex officio , books that are being published, and to pass sentence on such as deserve to be prohibited.
If the opinion of the third coincided with that of the first and with the general vote of the consultors, the case could be passed on to the cardinals.
Otherwise the consultors were again to give their votes, whereupon the matter would be put before the cardinals for final decision.
(The "Index librorum prohibitorum", as an integrant part of the prohibition of books, has already been dealt with in the article C ENSORSHIP OF B OOKS .) A book was prohibited or put on the Index by decree of the Sacred Congregation of the Roman Inquisition, of the Sacred Office, or of the Index, which decree though approved by the pope ( in formâ communi ), always remained a purely congregational decree.
This Bull of Benedict XIV, published on 8 July, 1753, regulated in detail the procedure of the Roman Congregations in the examination of pernicious books.The first Roman "Index of Prohibited Books" (Index librorum prohibitorum), published in 1559 under Paul IV, was very severe, and was therefore mitigated under that pontiff by decree of the Holy Office of 14 June of the same year.It was only in 1909 that this "Moderatio Indicis librorum prohibitorum" (Mitigation of the Index of Prohibited Books) was rediscovered in "Codex Vaticanus lat. 74", and was published for the first time in the "Zentralblatt für Bibliothekswesen" (Leipzig, 1909-10).Taxonomists who consider domesticated cattle a subspecies of the wild aurochs should use B.primigenius taurus; those who consider domesticated cattle to be a separate species may use the name B.